May 21, 2024

Guarding Flocks: The Role of Poultry Antibiotics

 

Types of Antibiotics Used

There are several types of antibiotics that are commonly used in commercial poultry operations. Beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillins are frequently administered to chickens and turkeys to treat respiratory infections. Tetracyclines are another frequently used class of antibiotics used for their antibacterial properties. Macrolides like erythromycin are also commonly employed to combat diseases affecting the respiratory and digestive systems in poultry. In addition, sulfonamides are utilized as an antimicrobial growth promoter in poultry feed. The overuse of these antibiotics has contributed to the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance.

Role of Antibiotics in Food Animal Production

Antibiotics play an important therapeutic role in poultry farming by treating diseases and ensuring flock health. However, they are also widely used for non-therapeutic purposes like growth promotion and disease prevention. It is a common practice to provide low doses of antibiotics in poultry feed on a regular basis not to cure any existing disease but to improve feed efficiency and weight gain. This is considered useful for maximizing profits. However, the overuse of antibiotics as growth promoters at sub-therapeutic levels has been criticized for posing risks to human health by selecting for resistant bacteria.

Rise of Antimicrobial Resistance

The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in poultry production has significantly contributed to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. When antibiotics are consistently used, it places massive selection pressure on the normal microbial populations in the birds’ intestines. This allows bacteria harboring resistance genes to survive and multiply while susceptible bacteria die. Through horizontal gene transfer, these resistance genes can spread rapidly among various bacteria present in the poultry gut, farm environments as well as workers involved in poultry production. Studies have detected resistant bacteria in poultry meat and surrounding environments including soil and water bodies. Such resistant bacteria or resistance genes can be transferred to humans through the food chain and pose serious consequences.

Impact on Human Health

The emergence of resistant bacteria due to intensive poultry antibiotics usage poses a major threat to public health. It limits treatment options for bacterial infections in both animals and humans. Diseases caused by drug-resistant pathogens like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are difficult to treat and associated with increased mortality. Consumption of poultry meat contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria can easily transmit such infections to people. This jeopardizes the efficacy of our last-resort antibiotics. It is also placing a huge burden on healthcare systems and costs worldwide.

Calls for Prudent Use of Antibiotics

To curb the growing menace of antibiotic resistance, many organizations like WHO, FDA are recommending prudent and responsible use of antibiotics in animals. They advocate restricting the use of medically important antibiotics for growth promotion and using them only for therapeutic purposes with veterinary oversight. Implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs on farms can optimize therapy and minimize resistance. Improving hygiene, farm management practices and alternative preventive strategies like vaccination, probiotics are also recommended to reduce disease burden and antibiotic dependency. Regulatory bodies in several countries have banned or restricted non-therapeutic use of certain antibiotics. While such efforts are steps in the right direction, a multidisciplinary ‘One Health’ approach is needed globally to address this serious challenge.

Consumer Awareness and Role in Fighting Resistance

As concerned citizens, it is also important for consumers to be aware of the implications of antibiotic overuse and play a role. Opting for meat and poultry labeled with responsible antibiotic use helps support farmers advocating more sustainable practices. Following basic food handling and hygiene prevents foodborne infections. Finishing prescribed antibiotic courses and not demanding them for minor ailments curbs misuse. Supporting policies restricting antibiotic use for growth promotion puts pressure on food industries. Individual actions coupled with regulatory changes and alternative production strategies can collectively help tackle the evolving threat of antibiotic resistance nurtured by current industrial farming practices. Only through joint collaborative efforts between diverse stakeholders, can we hope to preserve the efficacy of life-saving drugs for future generations.

In conclusion, Poultry antibiotics have undoubtedly contributed to increased and more affordable food production, their indiscriminate use is creating a global public health crisis. More prudent and regulated usage with a focus on animal welfare and sustainable antibiotic stewardship practices holds the key. Raising consumer awareness and instilling behavior changes are also vital to slow the spread of antimicrobial resistance – one of the greatest threats to modern medicine. A holistic ‘One Health’ strategy is urgently needed for effective mitigation and management of this complex issue.

 *Note :
1.     Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2.     We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile