June 18, 2024

CRISPR and CAS Gene; Two-Component System Used For Effective Targeted Gene Editing

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that is represented in most archaea and many bacteria. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is the hallmark of a bacterial defense system that forms the basis for CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology. The CRISPR/Cas9 system allows for the site-specific genomic targeting in virtually any organism. The type II CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response system that uses noncoding RNAs to guide the Cas9 nuclease to induce site-specific DNA cleavage.

CRISPR-Cas is an adaptive immune system existing in most bacteria and archaea, preventing them from being infected by phages, viruses, and other foreign genetic elements. CRISPR/Cas-9 system in nature is used to protect prokaryotes from invading viruses by both recognizing and degrading exogenous genetic elements. CRISPR and CAS Gene allow researchers to study gene’s function.

Research also suggests that CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to target and modify “typos” in the three-billion-letter sequence of the human genome in an effort to treat genetic disease. CRISPR/Cas9 is a simple two-component system used for effective targeted gene editing.

Players in the market began concentrating on expansion tactics including partnerships and agreements in order to increase the production of diagnostic instruments and match the market’s demand for COVID-19 diagnostics. For instance, in May 2020, Mammoth Biosciences and GlaxoSmithKline Plc worked together to create a COVID-19 detection test that is simple to use, accurate, quick, and totally disposable.

The test was created utilizing Mammoth Biosciences’ CRISPR-based DETECTR technology. Additionally, Mammoth Biosciences inked agreements in October 2020 for the commercialization of the CRISPR-based SARS CoV-2 test with MilliporeSigma (a Merck firm) and Hamilton firm.   The CRISPR and CAS Gene Market is anticipated to reach US$ 830.7 Mn in 2020 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 22.8% from 2020 to 2027, an Overview stated by Coherent Market Insights. Over the course of the forecast period, rising research and development efforts for CRISPR gene editing are anticipated to fuel market expansion. For instance, the first human clinical trial of the CRISPR genome editing technique was introduced in 2018 by CRISPR Therapeutics and Vertex.

CRISPR-Cas genome editing tool is a very powerful tool that enables researchers to make precise changes in genes in living cells and organisms. It can be used to edit genome of a cell for research purposes or to treat diseases that are caused by genetic mutations. CRISPR-Cas has unique set of features that makes it more versatile than other genome editing tools such as zinc finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases. In order to modify a gene, scientists first create a guide RNA that matches the target DNA sequence. The guide RNA is then linked to Cas9 protein via a chimeric Cas9-guide RNA complex.

The Cas9-guide RNA complex then binds to the DNA and cuts it at the targeted sequence. This is similar to how bacteria use CRISPR system to cut viral and bacterial DNA that contains matching sequences. After the targeted DNA is cut, Cas9 enzyme can either repair break using homology-directed repair or non-homologous end joining. If homology-directed repair is used, the cell can use a template from another part of the genome to repair the broken DNA. Non-homologous end joining repairs the broken DNA by simply ligating it back together. This process is error prone and may result in small insertions or deletions in the DNA.

In a nutshell, CRISPR and CAS Gene is a specific, efficient, and versatile gene-editing technology that can be used to modify, delete, or correct precise regions of DNA. The Government of India has been taking various initiatives regarding developing CRISPR Cas9 technology since 2017 that will not just enable editing parts of the genome of DNA sequence, but will also make it affordable.